Innovation, Environmental Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies in Ghana


  • Collins Kankam-Kwarteng Kumasi Technical University
  • Francis Osei Kumasi Technical University
  • George Nana Agyekum Donkor ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development (EBID)



Innovation, Environmental Antecedents, Performance Outcome


The purpose of the study was to ascertain the effects of innovation types and environmental antecedents on performance outcomes of Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies in Ashanti region, Ghana. Specifically, the study measures the mediating effects of environmental antecedents on the performance outcomes of the MMDAs. A total of 280 responses received from interested workers of the MMDAs were used for the study. As a result of the Covid-19 and its related restrictions, the questionnaire was developed using Google forms. Data were collected through social media and the responses received were screened and used for the analysis. The questionnaire was based on measurement scales for the key variables (innovation types, environmental antecedent, performance outcomes) understudy. SPSS and Sobel Test were used to estimate the mediation effect. The study results revealed that there is a significant but negative relationship between innovation types and performance outcomes at the MMDAs. Similarly, a significant and positive relationship was found between environmental antecedent and performance outcomes of the MMDs. Again, the results showed that there is a relationship between innovation types and performance outcomes of the MMDAs. Finally, the results showed that environmental antecedents mediate the relationship between innovation types and performance outcomes of the MMDAs. Based on the findings, the study recommends that managers of the MMDAs should continue to monitor and control the various environmental (public demands, political demand, regulatory frameworks, competition) forces within the public sector in order to realize the full potential of innovation and its role in facilitating performance outcome. Also, the MMDAs should embrace the innovation types (process innovation, process innovation, governance innovation, and conceptual innovation) in order to achieve higher performance outcomes (effectiveness, efficiency, citizen involvement and participation and customer satisfaction).

Author Biography

Francis Osei, Kumasi Technical University

Department of Marketing


Aidoo-Buameh, J. (2014). Political willingness to implement public sector financial management reforms in Ghana-accrual basis of accounting. Accounting and Finance Research, 3(1), 96-105.

Ayee, J. R. (2019). Six Decades of the Public Sector in Ghana. Politics, Governance and Development in Ghana, 167-190.

Alves, H. (2013). Co-creation and innovation in public services. The service industries journal, 33(7-8), 671-682.

Bloch, C., & Bugge, M. M. (2013). Public sector innovation—From theory to measurement. Structural change and economic dynamics, 27, 133-145.

Bharti, K., Agrawal, R., & Sharma, V. (2015). Literature review and proposed conceptual framework. International Journal of Market Research, 57(4), 571-604.

Bommert, B. (2010). Collaborative innovation in the public sector. International public management review, 11(1), 15-33.

Dassah, M. O. (2017). New Public Management Issues in Ghana. In New Public Management in Africa (pp. 91-125). Routledge.

De Vries, H., Tummers, L., & Bekkers, V. (2018). The diffusion and adoption of public sector innovations: A meta-synthesis of the literature. Perspectives on Public Management and Governance, 1(3), 159-176.

Evans, S., Vladimirova, D., Holgado, M., Van Fossen, K., Yang, M., Silva, E. A., & Barlow, C. Y. (2017). Business model innovation for sustainability: Towards a unified perspective for creation of sustainable business models. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(5), 597-608.

Essuman-Mensah, D. (2019). A Study of the Performance of Reform Institutions: Focusing on the Evolution of Public Sector Reforms in Ghana. Journal of International Development Cooperation, 14(2), 99-130.

Flanagan, K., Uyarra, E., & Laranja, M. (2011). Reconceptualising the ‘policy mix’for innovation. Research policy, 40(5), 702-713.

Galbreth, M. R., & Ghosh, B. (2013). Competition and sustainability: The impact of consumer awareness. Decision Sciences, 44(1), 127-159.

Greiling, D. (2005). Performance measurement in the public sector: the German experience. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.Vol. 54 No. 7, 551-567.

Hartley, J. (2013). Public and private features of innovation.In S. P. Osborne & L. Brown (Eds.), Handbook of innovation in public services (pp. 44-59). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Jansen, J. J., Van den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2005). Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and ambidexterity: The impact of environmental and organizational antecedents. Schmalenbach Business Review, 57(4), 351-363.

Kattel, R., Cepilovs, A., Lember, V., & Tõnurist, P. (2018). Indicators for public sector innovations: Theoretical frameworks and practical applications. Halduskultuur (Administrative Culture), 19(1), 77-104.

Klassen, R. D., & McLaughlin, C. P. (1996). The impact of environmental management on firm performance. Management science, 42(8), 1199-1214.

Leshem, S., & Trafford, V. (2007). Overlooking the conceptual framework. Innovations in education and Teaching International, 44(1), 93-105.

Luthra, S., Garg, D., & Haleem, A. (2015). Critical success factors of green supply chain management for achieving sustainability in Indian automobile industry. Production Planning & Control, 26(5), 339-362.

Mackay, K., & Gariba, S. (2000). The role of civil society in assessing public sector performance in Ghana. World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department: Washington DC.

McGaghie, W. C., Bordage, G., & Shea, J. A. (2001). Problem statement, conceptual framework, and research question. Academic medicine, 76(9), 923-924.

Melnyk, S. A., Sroufe, R. P., & Calantone, R. (2003). Assessing the impact of environmental management systems on corporate and environmental performance. Journal of operations management, 21(3), 329-351.

Molina‐Azorín, J. F., Tarí, J. J., Claver‐Cortés, E., & López‐Gamero, M. D. (2009). Quality management, environmental management and firm performance: a review of empirical studies and issues of integration. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(2), 197-222.

Mulgan, G., & Albury, D. (2003). Innovation in the public sector. Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office, 1(1), 40.

Ohemeng, F. L., & Ayee, J. R. (2016). The ‘new approach’to public sector reforms in Ghana: A case of politics as usual or a genuine attempt at reform?. Development Policy Review, 34(2), 277-300.

Ohemeng, F. L., & Akonnor, A. (2022). The New Public Sector Reform Strategy in Ghana: Creating a New Path for a Better Public Service?. Public Organization Review, 1-17.

Orsato, R. J. (2006). Competitive environmental strategies: when does it pay to be green?. California management review, 48(2), 127-143.

Owusu, F. (2006). Differences in the performance of public organisations in Ghana: Implications for public‐sector reform policy. Development Policy Review, 24(6), 693-705.

Osborne, S. P., & Brown, L. (2011). Innovation in public services: Engaging with risk. Public Money & Management, 31(1), 4-6.

Ohemeng, F. L., & Kamga, O. (2020). Administrative leaders as institutional entrepreneurs in developing countries: A study of the development and institutionalization of performance management in Ghana's public service. Public Administration and Development, 40(1), 87-100.

Simpson, D. D. (2002). A conceptual framework for transferring research to practice. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 22(4), 171-182.

Storey, J., Salaman, G., & Platman, K. (2005). Living with enterprise in an enterprise economy: Freelance and contract workers in the media. Human Relations, 58(8), 1033-1054.

Tamene, E. H. (2016). Theorizing conceptual framework. Asian Journal of Educational Research Vol, 4(2), 50-56.

Toso, E. A. V., & Alem, D. (2014). Effective location models for sorting recyclables in public management. European Journal of Operational Research, 234(3), 839-860.

van Acker, W., & Bouckaert, G. (2018). What makes public sector innovations survive? An exploratory study of the influence of feedback, accountability and learning. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 84(2), 249-268.

Varpio, L., Paradis, E., Uijtdehaage, S., & Young, M. (2020). The distinctions between theory, theoretical framework, and conceptual framework. Academic Medicine, 95(7), 989-994.

Waddell, S., Waddock, S., Cornell, S., Dentoni, D., McLachlan, M., & Meszoely, G. (2015). Large systems change: An emerging field of transformation and transitions. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, (58), 5-30.

Walker, R. M. (2014). Internal and external antecedents of process innovation: A review and extension.Public Management Review, 16(1), 21-44.

Weerawardena, J., & Mort, G. S. (2012). Competitive strategy in socially entrepreneurial nonprofit organizations: Innovation and differentiation. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 31(1), 91-101.

Williams, C. (2007). Research methods. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 5(3).

Williams, M. J., & Yecalo‐Tecle, L. (2020). Innovation, voice, and hierarchy in the public sector: Evidence from Ghana's civil service. Governance, 33(4), 789-807.