Hybrid Entrepreneurship as a Tool for Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: A Review of Literature with Qualitative Research and Content Analysis


  • Olajide Olubayo Thomas Lagos State University
  • Olajide Idowu Okunbanjo Olabisi Onabanjo University




Entrepreneurship, Hybrid Entrepreneurship, Paid Employment, Self-Employment, Poverty Reduction


In today’s Nigeria, employment in organizations has turned upside down due to poor economic situations which do not allow many companies to pay their employees well. There is a need for individuals to look for ways to increase their incomes for meeting financial obligations. The need for hybrid entrepreneurship is critical as well. This paper conducts a review of literature on hybrid entrepreneurship as a tool for poverty reduction. The research employs qualitative research approach and content analysis. The study concludes that, hybrid entrepreneurship is a determinant practice to reduce the rate of poverty in Nigeria. The paper recommends that, hybrid entrepreneurship should be encouraged among the Nigerian citizens so as to reduce the poverty level that has become a problem of Nigerians. Also, every Nigerian should try to get involved or engage in other businesses to augment their incomes so as to achieve their personal and family goals.


Astebro, T., & Thompson, P. (2011). Entrepreneurs, jacks of all trades or hobos? Research Policy, 40(5), 637-649.

Aladejebi, O. (2020). Hybrid entrepreneurship: Combining employment and self-employment in Nigeria. Archives of Business Research, 8(7). 404-418.

Alvarez, S.A., & Barney, J.B. (2014). Entrepreneurial opportunities and poverty alleviation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 38(1), 159-184.

Backes-Gellner, U., & Moog, P. (2013). The disposition to become an entrepreneur and the jacks-of-all-trades in social and human capital. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 47, 55-72.

Bögenhold, D. (2019). From hybrid entrepreneurs to entrepreneurial billionaires: Observations on the socioeconomic heterogeneity of self-employment. American Behavioral Scientist, 63(2), 129-146.

Cannon, S. (2019). Hybrid entrepreneurs’ intention to transition to full entrepreneurship: A career approach. Ph.D Dissertation, Georgia State University.

Cestino, J. (2019). Hybrid entrepreneurship as the pursuit of valued forms of work. Academy of Management, 1, 1-13.

Clark, D. (2018). How to get your side hustle off the ground. Harvard Business Review.

Demir, C., Werner, A., Kraus, S., & Jones, P. (2020). Hybrid entrepreneurship: A systematic literature review. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 1, 82-91.

Dzomonda, O., & Fatoki, O. (2018). Demystifying the motivations towards hybrid entrepreneurship among the working populace in South Africa. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 24(4), 1-9.

Ezeanyeji, C.I., Imoagwu, C.P., & Ejefobihi, U.F. (2019). Entrepreneurship development and poverty reduction in Nigeria: The synergy. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 7(4), 584-601.

Ferreira, C.C. (2020). Experiential learning theory and hybrid entrepreneurship: factors influencing the transition to full-time entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 26(8), 1845-1863.

Ferreira, C., Ferguson, S.L., & Pitt, L.F. (2019). Entrepreneurial marketing and hybrid entrepreneurship: the case of JM Reid Bamboo Rods. Journal of Marketing Management, 35(9-10), 867-885.

Florida, R. (2014). The rise of the creative class, revisited. New York City, NY: Basic Books.

Folta, T.B., Delmar, F., & Wennberg, K. (2010). Hybrid entrepreneurship. Management Science, 56(2), 253-269.

Hammarström, N., & Nylén, V. (2014). Pursuing hybrid entrepreneurship in Academia. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:730441/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Hartog, J., Van Praag, M., & Van Der Sluis, J. (2010). If you are so smart, why aren’t you an entrepreneur? Returns to cognitive and social ability: Entrepreneurs versus employees. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 19(4), 947-989.

Hussaini, U., & Noma, I.A. (2019). Entrepreneurship as a viable tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 5(1), 5-12.

Ibitoye, O., Atoyebi, K. O. & Sufian. J.B. (2015). Entrepreneurship and poverty reduction in Nigeria: An empirical analysis Journal of Business and Management, 17(3), 16-19.

Ikechukwu, D., Onyi, A. J., & Edeh, F. O. (). Entrepreneurship and poverty reduction in Nigeria: Empirical analysis of industrial layout Coal Camp, Enugu-State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research, 4(3), 115-130.

Indudewi, F.Y.R. (2015). Success factors of hybrid entrepreneurs: Case study of Universitas Ciputra academician. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(5), 84-90.

Iram, T., Bilal, A.R., & Rasool, Y. (). Hybrid Entrepreneurship escalating in women academicians. Paideuma Journal, 8(8), 86-106.

Jayathilaka, G., & Sachitra, V. (2020). Examine the drivers to engage in hybrid entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka. Sri Lankan Journal of Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 102-131.

Kelley, D. J., Singer, S., & Herrington, M. (2016). Global entrepreneurship monitor: 2015/2016 Global Report. London: Global Entrepreneurship Research Association.

Kim, P., Aldrich, H., & Keister, L. (2006). The impact of financial, human, and cultural capital on entrepreneurial entry in the United States. Small Business Economics, 27, 5-22.

Kuhn, K. (2016). The rise of the gig economy and implications for understanding work and workers. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(1), 157-162.

Kurczewska, A., & Mackiewicz, M. (2020). Are jacks-of-all-trades successful entrepreneurs? Revisiting Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship. Baltic Journal of Management, 1, 1-21.

Kurczewska, A., Mackiewicz, M., Dory, W., & Wawrzyniak, D. (2020). Peculiarity of hybrid entrepreneurs – revisiting Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 21(1), 277-300.

LKritskaya, L., Kolvereid, L., & Isaksen, E.J. (2017). Hybrid entrepreneurs: characteristics and achievements. De Boeck Supérieur, 34, 7-19.

Luc, S., Chirita, G., Delvaux, E., & Kepnou, A. (2018). Hybrid entrepreneurship: Employees climbing the entrepreneurial ladder. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 16(1), 89-113.

Nordström, C. (2015). The passionate combining entrepreneurs. Ph.D Thesis, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.

Petrova, K. (2010). Part-time entrepreneurship, learning and ability. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 12(1), 64-75.

Petrova, K. (2012). Part-time entrepreneurship and financial constraints: Evidence from the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics. Small Business Economics, 39(2), 473-493.

Popiel, P. (2017). Boundaryless in the creative economy: Assessing freelancing on upwork. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 34(3), 1-14.

Raffiee, J., & Feng, J. (2014). Should I quit my day job? A hybrid path to entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 936-963.

Schulz, M., Urbig, D., & Procher, V. (2016). Hybrid entrepreneurship and public policy: The case of firm entry deregulation. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(3), 272-286.

Schulza, M., Urbiga, D., & Prochera, V. (2017). The role of hybrid entrepreneurship in explaining multiple job holders’ earnings structure. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 7, 9-14.

Solesvik, M.Z. (2017). Hybrid entrepreneurship: How and why entrepreneurs combine employment with self-employment. Technology Innovation Management Review, 7(3), 33-41.

Stuetzer, M., Obschonka, M., Davidsson, P., & Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2013). Where do entrepreneurial skills come from? Applied Economics Letters, 20(12), 1183-1186.

Tegtmeier, S., Kurczewska, A., & Halberstadt, J. (2016). Are women graduates jacquelines-of-alltrades? Challenging Lazear’s view on entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 47(1), 77-94.

Umaru, H., & Ibrahim, A. (2019). Entrepreneurship as a viable tool for poverty reduction in Nigeria. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 5(1), 5-12.

Viljamaa, A., & Varamäki, E. (2014), Part-time or nascent entrepreneurs? Academic hybrid Entrepreneurship. In: Managing in an interconnected world: Pioneering business and technology excellence, Global Business and Technology Association 16th Annual International Conference Readings Book, July 8th–12th, Baku, Azerbaijan, 636-643.

Viljamaa, A., & Varamäki, E. (2015). Do persistent and transitory hybrid entrepreneurs differ? International Journal of Economics and Management Engineering, 9(3), 936-940.

Viljamaa, A., Varamäki, E., & Joensuu-Salo, S. (2017). Best of both worlds? Persistent hybrid entrepreneurship. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 24(4), 56-71.

Viljamaa, A.H., & EVaramäki, E.M. (2015). Do persistent and transitory hybrid entrepreneurs differ?. International Journal of Economics and Management Engineerin, 9(3), 936-940.

Wagner, J. (2003). Testing Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades view of entrepreneurship with German micro-data. Applied Economics Letters, 10(11), 687-689.

Wagner, J. (2006). Are nascent entrepreneurs ‘Jacks-of-all-trades’? A test of Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship with German data. Applied Economics, 38(20) 2415-2419.

World Bank (1990). Nigeria –poverty in the midst of plenty. The challenge of growth inclusive: A world bank poverty assessment. Population and Human Resource, Divisions Report, No. 14733.

World Bank (2011). World development report. New York: Oxford University Press.

Xi, G., Block, J., Lasch, F., Robert, F., & Thurik, R. (2017). Mode of entry into hybrid entrepreneurship: New venture start-up versus business takeover. IZA Institute of Labor Economics, Discussion Paper Series.